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Gastric varices are dilated submucosal veins in the stomachwhich can be a life-threatening cause of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
They are most commonly found in patients with portal hypertensionor elevated pressure in the portal vein system, which may be a complication of cirrhosis. Gastric varices may also be found in patients with thrombosis of the splenic veininto which the short gastric veins which drain the fundus of the stomach flow.
The latter may be a complication of acute pancreatitispancreatic canceror other abdominal tumours, as well as hepatitis C.
Gastric varices and associated bleeding are a potential complication of schistosomiasis resulting from portal hypertension. Patients with bleeding gastric varices can present with bloody vomiting hematemesisdark, Varizen in Wikipedia, tarry stools melenaor rectal bleeding. The bleeding may be brisk, and patients may soon develop shock. Treatment of gastric varices can include injection of the varices with cyanoacrylate glue, or a radiological procedure to decrease the pressure in the portal vein, termed transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or TIPS, Varizen in Wikipedia.
Treatment with intravenous octreotide is also useful to shunt blood flow away from the stomach's circulation.
More aggressive treatment including splenectomy or surgical removal of the spleen or liver transplantation may be required in some cases. Gastric varices can present in two major ways. First, Varizen in Wikipedia with cirrhosis may be enrolled in screening gastroscopy programs to detect esophageal varices.
These evaluations may detect gastric varices that are asymptomatic. When gastric varices are symptomatic, however, they usually present acutely and dramatically with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The symptoms can include vomiting bloodmelena passing black, tarry stools ; or passing maroon stools or frank blood in the stools. Many people with bleeding gastric varices present in shock due to the profound loss of blood.
Secondly, patients with acute pancreatitis may present with gastric varices as a complication of a blood clot in the splenic vein. The splenic vein sits over the pancreas anatomically and inflammation or cancers of the pancreas Varizen in Wikipedia result in a blot Varizen in Wikipedia forming in the splenic vein.
As the short gastric veins of the fundus of the stomach drain into the lokale Krampfadern vein, thrombosis of the splenic vein will result in increased pressure and engorgement of the Varizen in Wikipedia veins, leading to varices in the fundus of the stomach. Laboratory testing usually shows low red blood cell count and often a low platelet count.
If cirrhosis is present, there may be coagulopathy manifested by a prolonged INR ; both of these may worsen the bleeding from gastric varices. In very rare cases, gastric varices are caused by splenic vein occlusion as a result of the mass effect of slow-growing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis of gastric varices is often made at the time of upper endoscopy. The Sarin classification of gastric varices identifies four different anatomical types of gastric varices, which differ in terms of treatment modalities.
Initial treatment of bleeding from gastric varices focuses on resuscitation, much as with esophageal varices. This includes administration of fluids, blood products, and antibiotics. The results from the only two randomized trials comparing band ligation vs cyanoacrylate suggests that endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylateknown as gastric variceal obliteration or GVO is superior to band ligation in preventing rebleeding rates.
Cyanoacrylate, a common component in 'super glue' is often mixed 1: GVO is usually performed in specialized therapeutic endoscopy centers. Complications include sepsis, embolization of glue, and obstruction from polymerization in the lumen of the stomach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Diseases of the digestive system primarily K20—K93Varizen in Wikipedia, — Coeliac Tropical sprue Blind loop syndrome Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome Whipple's Short bowel syndrome Steatorrhea Milroy disease Bile acid malabsorption. Abdominal angina Mesenteric ischemia Angiodysplasia Bowel obstruction: Proctitis Radiation proctitis Proctalgia fugax Rectal prolapse Anismus, Varizen in Wikipedia.
Upper Hematemesis Melena Lower Hematochezia. Peritonitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Hemoperitoneum Pneumoperitoneum. Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99— Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Carotid artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis. Aortoiliac occlusive disease Degos disease Erythromelalgia Fibromuscular dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon. Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous malformation Telangiectasia Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Cherry hemangioma Halo nevus Spider angioma, Varizen in Wikipedia. Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Superior vena cava syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome Venous ulcer.
Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension. Retrieved from " https: Varizen in Wikipedia disorders Diseases of veins, lymphatic vessels and Varizen in Wikipedia nodes. Articles lacking sources from January All articles lacking sources. Views Read Edit View history.
Varizen in Wikipedia
As part of the rebranding that the Baby Bells took in the mids, all of the operating companies assumed the Bell Atlantic name. InBell Atlantic acquired GTEwhich operated Varizen in Wikipedia companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantic's footprint.
Bell Atlantic, the surviving company, changed its name to "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas Latin for "truth" and horizon. InVerizon expanded into media ownership by acquiring AOL. Two years later, the company acquired Yahoo! As of [update]Verizon is one of three companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells. The other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members.
Its Verizon Wireless subsidiary is the largest Varizen in Wikipedia. Bell Atlantic's original roster of operating Varizen in Wikipedia included:. When it merged, it moved its corporate headquarters from Philadelphia to New York City. NYNEX was consolidated into this name by Upon the acquisition, Verizon became the largest local telephone company in the United Statesoperating 63 million telephone lines in 40 states, Varizen in Wikipedia. The name Verizon derives from the combination of the words veritasLatin for truth, and horizon.
In AugustVarizen in Wikipedia, approximately 85, Verizon workers went on an day labor strike after their union contracts expired. It was initially only available to customers in New York and Massachusetts. In JuneVerizon Wireless backed an FCC-issued portability requirement that permitted consumers to take their phone numbers with them across carriers.
On December 22,mail servers at Verizon. Individual domains would only be unblocked upon request. Twenty percent of qualified homes signed up by the end of the year. Verizon began negotiations to purchase long distance carrier MCI in Verizon won a lawsuit against Vonage in March for patent infringement. The three patents named were filed by Bell Atlantic in and relate to the conversion of IP addresses into phone numbers, a key technology of Vonage's business.
In MayVerizon acquired Cybertrust, a privately held provider of global information security services. Verizon Wireless reversed a controversial decision in September to deny NARAL Pro-Choice America a short code through which the organization could text consumers who had signed up for messaging from the group. They had initially Varizen in Wikipedia the group access to a code by reserving the right to block "controversial or unsavory" messages.
In NovemberVarizen in Wikipedia, Verizon opened its networks for the first time to third party apps and devices,  a decision that allowed it to participate in the FCC's MHz auction of "open access" spectrum. The company stated the overcharges were accidental and only amounted to a few dollars per customer. On February 4,4chan started receiving reports from Verizon Wireless customers that they were having difficulties accessing the site's image boards.
On February 7,Verizon Wireless confirmed that 4chan. Traffic was restored several days later. In Augustthe chairmen of Verizon and Google agreed that network neutrality should be defined and limited. Verizon introduced its 4G LTE network in 38 markets in Decemberas well as in airports in seven additional cities.
The company planned on a three-year continuous expansion of the 4G service. And inthey announced they were selling its wireline operations in Texas, Florida, and California to Frontier. In addition, the company reported in the K that most of the drop in employment since was due to a voluntary retirement offer. Verizon reported that it had already addressed or was addressing a number of the issues related to the FCC report, including the causes of generator failures, conducting audits of backup systems and making its monitoring systems less centralized,  although the FCC indicated that Verizon still needed to make additional improvements.
In Julythe FCC ruled that Verizon must stop charging users an added fee for using 4G smartphones and tablets as Wi-Fi hotspots known as " tethering ". On January 22, Varizen in Wikipedia, the Wall Street Journal reported that Verizon received more than 1, Varizen in Wikipedia, requests for information about its subscribers on national security grounds via National Security Letters.
In total, Verizon receivedrequests from federal, state and local law enforcement for U. In AugustVerizon launched HumVarizen in Wikipedia, a service and device offering vehicle diagnostic and monitoring tools for vehicles.
In OctoberVerizon was accused by Communications Workers of America of deliberately refusing to maintain its copper telephone service. The organization released internal memos and other documents stating that Verizon workers in Pennsylvania were being instructed to, in areas with network problems, migrate voice-only customers to VoiceLink—a system that delivers telephone service over the Verizon Wireless network, and not to repair the copper lines.
VoiceLink has limitations, including incompatibility with services or devices that require the transmission of data over the telephone line, and a dependency on a battery backup in case of power failure, Varizen in Wikipedia. The memo warned that technicians who do not follow this procedure would be subject to "disciplinary action up to and including dismissal".
A Verizon spokesperson responded to the allegations, stating that the company's top priority was to restore service to customers as quickly as possible, and that VoiceLink was a means of doing so in the event that larger repairs have to be done to the infrastructure. The spokesperson stated that it was "hard to argue with disciplining someone who intentionally leaves a customer without service", Varizen in Wikipedia. On March 13,Verizon was sued by New York City for violating its cable franchise agreement, which required the provider to pass a fiberoptic network to all households in the city by June 30, Verizon disputed the claims, citing landlords not granting permission to install the equipment on their properties, and an understanding with the government that the fiber network would follow the same routes as its copper lines, and did not necessarily mean it would have to pass the lines in front of every property.
On March 16,Verizon announced that it would discontinue the e-mail services provided for its internet subscribers, and migrate them to AOL Mail. On June 8,Yahoo! The deal officially closed Varizen von schwangeren Frauen in dem Damm June 13, Stratton will also lead operations and sales for the Internet of Things Varizen in Wikipedia and services, including smart communities.
And it now includes Verizon Telematicspreviously part of the Media Division. It the largest segment of the company. Verizon inherited multiple incumbent local exchange carriers that remain part of the company's operations, these are:. The "Can you hear me now? In addition, customer turnover dropped to 1.
The Schwindel Varizen a map for that" campaign was launched in late This public service advertising campaign was designed to help teens recognize and prevent digital dating abuse. Verizon launched its "Inspire Her Mind" ad in June The ad, created by the agency AKQA, was designed to encourage girls' interest in science, technology, engineering and math.
Verizon launched its Flipside Stories ad campaign Varizen in Wikipedia February featuring the NeverSettle hashtag. For wireless, it relies heavily on its larger coverage map, and its RootMetrics RootScore awards.
The current Board of Directors is comprised as follows as of February As of November 1, It focuses on GUI functions instead of testing security relevant features. Not detected were Chromodo browser disabling of the same-origin policyVarizen in Wikipedia, a VNC delivered with a default of weak authentication, not enabling address space layout randomization ASLR when scanning, and using access control lists ACLs throughout its product. Verizon is the title sponsor of Varizen in Wikipedia large performance and sports venues as well as a sponsor of several major sporting organizations.
In JanuaryVerizon secured exclusive marketing and promotional rights with the National Hockey League. In lateVerizon Communications joined with Vodafone Group in a joint partnership to replace Sprint as the official wireless telecommunications partner of the National Football League. The new agreement gave Verizon the right to stream every NFL regular-season and playoff game.
Verizon is also currently the title sponsor of five entertainment amphitheaters in locations throughout the United States, Varizen in Wikipedia, four being individually referred to as the "Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre": From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For its mobile network subsidiary, see Verizon Wireless. For its Prävention von Thrombophlebitis der oberflächlichen Venen residential service, see Verizon FiOS, Varizen in Wikipedia. Retrieved October 5, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved September 14, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved November 27, The New York Times.
Retrieved December 17, Retrieved February 3, Retrieved January 9, Onge, Jeff November 15, Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved December 26, Retrieved September 23, Vaughan-Nichols July 31, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved June 6, The Wall Street Journal, Varizen in Wikipedia.
Retrieved February 12, Retrieved February 21, Retrieved 4 December Retrieved August 1, Varizen in Wikipedia Retrieved September 15, Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 14 March
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Gastric varices are dilated submucosal veins in the stomach, which can be a life-threatening cause of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
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